Mathematical content and curriculum are supported and enhanced by mathematical processes that are common to all strands and specific expectations. Please note, our standard math class for 7^{th} grade is Pre-Algebra, which is an 8^{th} grade standard curriculum.

1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving problem strategies

2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively

3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of other

4. Model with mathematics

5. Use appropriate tools strategically

6. Attend to precision

7. Look for and make use of structure

8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning

**Statistics and Probability**

- Understand the concept and uses of statistics
- Find, use, and interpret measures of center and spread for a data set
- Understand and use random sampling to draw inferences about a population
- Informally assess the degree of visual overlap of two numerical distributions
- Understand the concept of probability of a chance event
- Express the likelihood of an event occurring with a number between 0 and 1
- Approximate the probability of a chance event by collecting data
- Draw probability models and use them to find probabilities
- Predict approximate relative frequencies of events
- Find probabilities of compound events using diagrams, tables, lists, or simulation
- Solve real world and mathematical problems involving statistics and probability

- Find probabilities of compound events using diagrams, tables, lists, or simulations
- Apply the multiplication counting principle to situations with a large number of outcomes
- Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data
- Construct and interpret scatter plots

**Ratios and Proportional Relationships**

- Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities
- Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship
- Identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in proportional relationships
- Use equations to represent proportional relationships
- Solve multistep ratio and percent problems
- Analyze proportional relationships to solve real world and mathematical problems

**The Number System**

- Understand and explain addition and subtraction of rational numbers
- Understand and explain multiplication and division of rational numbers
- Apply properties of operations with rational numbers
- Convert rational numbers to decimals
- Know that the decimal form of a rational number terminates in zero or repeats
- Compute fluently with rational numbers
- Solve real world problems involving operations with rational numbers
- Show the decimal expansion of a rational number
- Know that the decimal expansion of a rational number eventually repeats
- Know that there are numbers that are not rational
- Compare the size of irrational numbers with rational approximations
- Find approximate locations of irrational numbers on a number line
- Estimate the value of irrational number expressions
- Solve real world and mathematical problems with rational numbers using multiple operations

**Geometry**

- Construct triangles from three measures of angles or sides
- Identify and describe similarity relationships of polygons
- Interpret and create scale drawings of geometric figures
- Solve real world and mathematical problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures
- Solve real world and mathematical problems that involve vertical, adjacent, complementary, and supplementary angles
- Solve real world and mathematical problems involving angle measure
- Understand and apply formulas for area and circumference of a circle
- Understand and apply formulas for area, volume, and surface area
- Solve real world and mathematical problems involving area, volume, and surface area of quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, right prisms, and cylinders
- Describe two-dimensional figures that result from slicing three-dimensional figures
- Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem
- Explain a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse
- Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths
- Solve real world and mathematical problems involving the Pythagorean Theorem
- Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find distances between points on a coordinate graph
- Know and use the formulas for the volume and surface area of cylinders, cones, spheres, and pyramids
- Solve real world and mathematical problems involving volume and surface area of solid figures

**Algebra and Functions**

- Read and write square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations
- Interpret and write scientific notation to estimate very large or small quantities
- Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation
- Analyze, solve, and graph linear equations in one variable with one solution, no solutions, or an infinite number of solutions
- Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the slope of a graph
- Analyze, graph, and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations
- Write and solve real world problems leading to two linear equations
- Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship from a graph
- Define slope as vertical change for each unit of horizontal change
- Graph a line, given its slope and a point on the line
- Find the slope of a line given its graph
- Define, evaluate, and compare functions
- Understand that a function assigns exactly one y-value (dependent variable) to each x-value (independent variable)
- Express functions algebraically, graphically, verbally, and numerically
- Know that the equation
*y = mx + b*defines a linear function with a straight line graph - Identify and give examples of functions that are not linear
- Use functions to model relationships between quantities
- Compare properties of two different functions
- Work with radicals and integer exponents, including fractional exponents

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**Speaking and Listening **

- Participate in collaborative discussions on a variety of grade-level topics
- Express ideas clearly and respectfully in group discussions
- Follow agreed-upon rules and preparation procedures for discussions
- Listen and respond to others, building on others’ ideas
- Analyze ideas and details presented in many media and formats
- Identify an argument, claims; evaluate the soundness of reasoning and evidence
- Present claims or information in logical sequence supported with relevant facts and details
- Use clear pronunciation and appropriate eye contact and volume when speaking
- Add multimedia and visual components to clarify ideas in presentations
- Show command of formal English language when speaking for a variety of tasks

**Reading Literature and Informational Text and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects**

- Cite evidence from text to support analysis of both explicit and implicit messages within the text
- Find and explain one or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development
- Analyze how a theme or central idea develops throughout the text
- Summarize literary and informational or explanatory texts
- Analyze how elements of a story interact
- Analyze interactions between/among individuals, events, and ideas in a text
- Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history or social studies
- Describe how a text presents information
- Follow a multistep written procedure when performing science or technical tasks
- Determine meanings and effects of words, phrases, or symbols as used in a text
- Analyze the effect of specific word choices on a text’s meaning and tone
- Analyze how a particular part of a text fits into the overall structure
- Analyze how the form or structure of a text contributes to its meaning
- Analyze how an author develops and contrasts points of view of different characters
- Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic
- Compare and contrast a text to its audio, video, or multimedia version
- Integrate quantitative or technical information presented in text form with information expressed visually
- Trace and evaluate the argument and supporting reasons in a text
- Analyze whether an author supports a claim with sound reasoning and sufficient evidence
- Analyze and compare two or more authors’ presentations of the same information
- Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal and a historical account of the same period
- By the end of the academic year, read and understand grade-level literary and informational texts (including history/social studies, science, and technical subjects) independently and with proficiency

**Writing**

- Write arguments supported with clear reasons and relevant evidence, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
- Write informative or explanatory pieces developed with relevant details, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
- Write narrations that include details, put events in order, and provide a conclusion
- Produce effective writing appropriate to the task, purpose, and audience
- Strengthen writing by getting feedback, revising, editing, and rewriting
- Add dialogue and descriptions to develop characters and events
- Use tools, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing
- Cite sources for information used in writing
- Contribute to collaborative group writing projects
- Conduct short research tasks on a topic through investigation
- Gather information from various sources to answer a question
- Assess the credibility and accuracy of sources
- Quote or paraphrase data and conclusions while avoiding plagiarism
- Include evidence from literary or informational texts
- Regularly produce clear writing for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences (including writing in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects)

**Vocabulary**

- Use context clues to determine word and phrase meanings
- Use word structure clues to determine meanings of unknown words
- Use relationships between words to better understand each word
- Use references (print and digital) to determine or verify a word’s meanings, find its pronunciation or its part of speech
- Interpret and use figurative language in context
- Distinguish literal and nonliteral meanings of words in context
- Distinguish shades of meaning among related words
- Distinguish among connotations of words with similar denotations
- Learn and use grade-level general academic vocabulary

**English Language Skills**

- Explain the function of phrases and clauses and their use in specific sentences
- Use phrases and clauses correctly in a sentence
- Recognize and correct dangling and misplaced modifiers
- Identify and use simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences
- Use conventions of English correctly when writing
*(capitalization, punctuation,*and*spelling)* - Spell grade-level words correctly
- Choose precise and concise words when writing or speaking
- Vary sentence patterns for meaning, interest, and style when writing; avoid passive construction
- Maintain consistency in style and tone when writing
- Know the difference between formal and informal English and when to use each
**Science-Biology (Life Science)**The Next Generation Science and Engineering Standards describe scientific practices that scientists use as they investigate the natural world and engineering practices that engineers use as they design and build models and systems. In addition, they present seven crosscutting concepts that apply across all the topics and fields of science. The teaching of science topics and the corresponding standards at all grade levels K-12 are intricately interwoven with these practices and crosscutting concepts. Students need consistent experience and connection with these two dimensions of science education (practices and cross-cutting concepts) as they work with the third dimension (core science content topics).

**Science and Engineering Practices**1. Asking questions (science) and defining problems (engineering)

2. Developing and using models

3. Designing and carrying out investigations

4. Organizing and interpreting data

5. Using mathematics and computational thinking

6. Constructing explanations (science) and designing solutions (engineering)

7. Engaging in argument from evidence

8. Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information**Crosscutting Concepts**1. Patterns

2. Cause and effect

3. Scale, proportion, and quantity

4. Systems and system models

5. Energy and matter: Flows, cycles, and conservation

6. Structure and function

7. Stability and change**Biology**

- Origins of life
- Growth and development of organisms
- Ecological relationships
- Cycles of matter and energy flow in organisms and systems
- Plant structures and functions
- Plant processes (
*photosynthesis, respiration,*and*transpiration*) - Plant behaviors
- Animal structures and functions
- Animal behaviors, including social and group behavior
- Cell structure and function
- One-cell and multicellular organisms
- Cell physiology
- Cell chemistry
- Diffusion and osmosis
- Mitosis

- Interdependent relationships in ecosystems
- Ecosystem dynamics, functioning, and resilience
- Cycles of matter and energy transfer in organisms in ecosystems
- Solar energy in ecosystems
- Human interactions with the environment
- Biodiversity and humans
- Environmental problems and solutions
- Human body structure, function, and systems
- Homeostasis and feedback systems
- Immune responses
- Human reproduction and development
- Genetics
- Natural selection and adaptation
- Biotechnology and bioethics
**NOTE: In this class, students participate in over nine hands-on dissections executed in the Science Lab. (e.g. eye, lung, heart, owl pellet, worm, frog etc.)**

There are ten themes of social studies that serve as a background framework for the teaching of the social sciences at all grade levels. They weave through all content and are interrelated with one another. These themes should be developed and built upon throughout the grades.

**Ten Themes of Social Studies**

1. Culture

2. Time, continuity, and change

3. People, places, and environments

4. Individual development and identity

5. Individuals, groups, and institutions

6. Power, authority, and governance

7. Production, distribution, and consumption

8. Science, technology, and society

9. Global connections

10. Civic ideals and practices

There are social studies practices and habits and literacy skills that should be fostered and integrated with all social studies content.

Gathering, interpreting, and using evidence from various sources

2. Applying critical thinking skills to organize, use, and evaluate information

3. Problem solving and decision making processes

4. Chronological reasoning and understanding of causation

5. Comparing and understanding events and relationships in context

6. Comparing different ways of looking at an event or problem

7. Considering how people might be affected by events, changes, settings, or problems

8. Communicating knowledge, research conclusions, and ideas in written, oral, and visual forms

9. Geographic reasoning and use of geographic tools

10. Describing and explaining economics and economic systems

11. Civic understanding and participation

**World History, Medieval, and Early Modern Times**

- Disintegration of the Roman Empire
- Byzantine Empire
- Islamic civilizations and trade
- African states in sub-Saharan Africa
- Medieval Chinese and Japanese civilizations
- Feudal system
- Growth and spread of Christianity
- Growth of civilizations in sub-Saharan Africa
- Causes, course, and effects of religious crusades
- Spread of bubonic plague
- Ottoman Empire
- European voyages to and conquests in the Americas
- Rise of the Atlantic slave trade
- Origins, features, and spread of the Renaissance
- Growth of new ways of spreading information
- Reformation and Counterreformation
- Age of Discovery
- Ideas of the Enlightenment
- French Revolution
- Other Revolutions in Europe and the Americas (1775-1848)
- Rise of Imperialism
- Industrial Revolution
- Scientific Revolution
- Rise of democratic thought and institutions
- Physical geography of regions and countries during the medieval period
- Geographic influences on major events in this span of history

For admissions information or to schedule a tour of our school, please contact Karen Terzich at karen.terzich@stregis.org or 248-RAIDERS x5040.