Fifth Grade


Mathematical content and curriculum are supported and enhanced by mathematical processes that are common to all strands and specific expectations.

1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving problem strategies
2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively
3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of other
4. Model with mathematics
5. Use appropriate tools strategically
6. Attend to precision
7. Look for and make use of structure
8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning

Fractions and Operations

  • Use equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators  (2/5 + 7/3 = 6/15 + 35/15 = 41/15)
  • Solve word problems with addition and subtraction of fractions or mixed numbers with like and unlike denominators
  • Create models or equations to represent problems with fractions
  • Understand a fraction as division of the numerator by the denominator
  • Solve word problems dividing whole numbers leading to fraction or mixed number answers
  • Multiply a fraction by a whole number or a whole number by a fraction
  • Find areas of rectangles with fractional sides by modeling with unit squares
  • Interpret multiplication as scaling (resizing)
  • Explain results of multiplying a number by a fraction greater or less than 1
  • Use all operations to solve world problems with fractions and mixed numbers
  • Compute and explain division of a fraction by a whole number
  • Compute and explain division of a whole number by unit fraction
  • Divide unit fractions by non-zero whole numbers and whole numbers by unit fractions

Algebraic Thinking and Operations

  • Write and interpret numerical expressions
  • Evaluate simple expressions
  • Analyze patterns and relationships
  • Expand a whole number (2-50) as a product of its prime factors
  • Analyze patterns and relationships given two rules

Geometry and Spatial Relationships

  • Understand the coordinate system and the meanings of the origin, x-axis, x-coordinate, y-axis, and y-coordinate
  • Graph points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane to solve real-world and mathematical problems
  • Classify two-dimensional figures into categories based on their properties
  • Classify two-dimensional figures into a hierarchy

Number and Operations

  • Understand that each place in a number represents 10 times the place to right and one-tenth of the place to the left
  • Know patterns of zeros when multiplying or dividing a number by powers of 10
  • Use exponents to show powers of 10
  • Read, write, and compare decimals to the thousandths place
  • Perform operations with multi-digit whole numbers
  • Perform operations with decimals to hundredths

Measurement and Data

  • Convert like measurement units within a given measurement system
  • Use measurement conversions in solving real world problems
  • Use a line plot to display a data set of unit fraction measurements
  • Use operations of fractions to solve problems from displayed data
  • Understand concepts of volume and measuring of volume
  • Relate volume to multiplication and to addition
  • Define and describe a cubic unit
  • Use standard or improvised unit cubes to measure volume
  • Find volume of rectangular prisms by packing the prism with unit cubes
  • Know and apply formulas for the volume of right rectangular prisms
  • Solve real world problems involving volume
  • Find volumes of solid figures that are composed of two non-overlapping right rectangular prisms 

Language Arts

Foundational Skills

  • Apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in reading unfamiliar words
  • Read grade-level texts with purpose and understanding
  • Orally read grade-level texts with accuracy, expression, and appropriate rate
  • Confirm and self-correct words during oral reading

Reading Literature and Informational Text

  • Identify main topics, ideas, or arguments in grade-level text
  • Explain how details in the text support main ideas
  • Identify evidence in the text to support the author’s message or reader’s responses
  • Describe theme of a literary text
  • Summarize literary and informational or explanatory texts
  • Compare and contrast characters, settings, events, or ideas from a text
  • Determine meanings and effects of words or phrases as used in a text
  • Describe overall structure of a passage and its effect on the message
  • Describe how chapters, sections, scenes, or stanzas fit together in a text
  • Use features in the text and search tools to locate relevant information
  • Explain connections between people, events, ideas, concepts, or steps in a text
  • Describe how a narrator’s or writer’s point of view influences the text
  • Explain how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning and tone
  • Compare, contrast, and analyze texts in the same genre or on the same topic
  • Find and integrate information from multiple sources to answer a question or solve a problem
  • By the end of the academic year, read and understand grade-level literary and informational texts at grade level independently and with proficiency

Speaking and Listening

  • Express ideas and feelings clearly
  • Speak clearly and audibly in sensible sentences
  • Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details
  • Give and follow directions
  • Participate in conversations with diverse partners and groups
  • Follow agreed-upon rules and preparation procedures for discussions
  • Listen and respond to others with focus and care
  • Summarize points made by a speaker
  • Present a spoken report with supporting facts and details
  • Add visual components to a speech to clarify ideas, feelings, and thoughts


  • Write opinion pieces supported with relevant facts and reasons, and a strong conclusion
  • Write informative or explanatory pieces supported with relevant facts and reasons, and a strong conclusion
  • Write narrations that include details, put events in order, and provide a conclusion
  • Strengthen writing by getting feedback, revising, editing, and rewriting
  • Add dialogue and descriptions to develop characters and events
  • Use tools, including digital tools, to produce and publish writing
  • Gather information from various sources to answer a question
  • Create written and visual works to summarize and share information
  • Conduct short research topics on a topic through investigation
  • Regularly produce clear writing for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences

English Language Skills

  • Identify parts of speech and their functions in specific sentences
  • Recognize and use conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections
  • Form, recognize, and use various verb tenses and appropriate shifts in verb tense
  • Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, style, and interest
  • Use conventions of English correctly when writing (capitalization, punctuation, and spelling)
  • Spell grade-level words correctly
  • Consult reference materials to check spellings
  • Correctly use the English language when speaking, reading, or writing
  • Know the difference between formal and informal English and when to use each


  • Use context clues to determine word and phrase meanings
  • Use word structure clues to determine meanings of unknown words
  • Use synonyms and antonyms to clarify and explain word meanings
  • Use references (print and digital) to determine or clarify word meaning
  • Understand and use figurative language (similes, metaphors, idioms, adages, proverbs, etc.)
  • Distinguish literal and nonliteral meanings of words in context
  • Distinguish shades of meaning among related words
  • Learn and use grade-level general academic vocabulary


The Next Generation Science and Engineering Standards describe scientific practices that scientists use as they investigate the natural world and engineering practices that engineers use as they design and build models and systems. In addition, they present seven crosscutting concepts that apply across all the topics and fields of science. The teaching of science topics and the corresponding standards at all grade levels K-12 are intricately interwoven with these practices and crosscutting concepts. Students need consistent experience and connection with these two dimensions of science education (practices and cross-cutting concepts) as they work with the third dimension (core science content topics).

Science and Engineering Practices

1. Asking questions (science) and defining problems (engineering)
2. Developing and using models
3. Designing and carrying out investigations
4. Organizing and interpreting data
5. Using mathematics and computational thinking
6. Constructing explanations (science) and designing solutions (engineering)
7. Engaging in argument from evidence
8. Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

Crosscutting Concepts

1. Patterns
2. Cause and effect
3. Scale, proportion, and quantity
4. Systems and system models
5. Energy and matter: Flows, cycles, and conservation
6. Structure and function
7. Stability and change

Life Science

  • Interdependent energy relationships in ecosystem
  • Matter and energy flow in organisms for maintenance, growth, and repair
  • Life cycles and energy cycles in ecosystems
  • Forest ecosystems
  • Food chains and food webs
  • Human impact on Earth and ecosystems

Physical Science

  • Observations and measurements that identify properties of materials
  • Atoms and molecules in matter and their behavior in different states of matter
  • Chemical reactions
  • Law of Conservation of Matter
  • Chemical processes in everyday life
  • Gravitational force on planets

Earth and Space Science

  • The universe and its stars
  • Patterns and movements in the solar system
  • Earth’s orbit and rotation and the resulting patterns
  • Earth systems (geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere) and their interactions
  • The role of water in Earth surface processes
  • Rocks and minerals and their classifications
  • Earth’s topography
  • Human impact on Earth systems


Social Science – Studies of the Western Hemisphere

There are ten themes of social studies that serve as a background framework for the teaching of the social sciences at all grade levels. They weave through all content and are interrelated with one another. These themes should be developed and built upon throughout the grades.

Ten Themes of Social Studies

1. Culture
2. Time, continuity, and change
3. People, places, and environments
4. Individual development and identity
5. Individuals, groups, and institutions
6. Power, authority, and governance
7. Production, distribution, and consumption
8. Science, technology, and society
9. Global connections
10. Civic ideals and practices

There are social studies practices and habits and literacy skills that should be fostered and integrated with all social studies content.

Gathering, interpreting, and using evidence from various sources
2. Applying critical thinking skills to organize, use, and evaluate information
3. Problem solving and decision making processes
4. Chronological reasoning and understanding of causation
5. Comparing and understanding events and relationships in context
6. Comparing different ways of looking at an event or problem
7. Considering how people might be affected by events, changes, settings, or problems
8. Communicating knowledge, research conclusions, and ideas in written, oral, and visual forms
9. Geographic reasoning and use of geographic tools
10. Describing and explaining economics and economic systems
11. Civic understanding and participation

Community and Culture

  • Understanding that members of a civilization share certain common characteristics, customs, beliefs, and values
  • Development of unique cultures in the early Americas
  • Description of Mayan, Aztec, Incan civilizations
  • Appreciation of the complexity of ancient societies and civilizations
  • Cultural diffusion, including the Columbian Exchange
  • Cultural comparison between regions (now the United States, Canada, Caribbean, and South America) in the past and present
  • Key cultural contributions to United States culture and the world from the other Western Hemisphere regions
  • Current issues faced by two or more Western Hemisphere nations
  • Examples of cultural cooperation among Western Hemisphere nations

Government and Citizenship

  • Development and comparison of varied political systems and their development
  • Foundation documents and basic structures of the United States, Canada, Mexico, and one country in the Caribbean region and one country in South America
  • Ways groups have struggled for equality and civil rights in some of the countries of the hemisphere
  • Ways groups have struggled for sovereignty in some of the countries
  • Multinational cooperative organizations and their functions
  • Some key ideas, symbols, and values of some of the countries


  • Development of different types of economic systems
  • Comparisons of past and present economies in the regions and nations
  • Economic activities past and present
  • Trade in the hemisphere, past and present
  • Major resources, industries, products, and services of countries and regions
  • How and why products are manufactured where they are
  • Interdependence of economies of the regions


  • Geographical features (physical and human) of each of the Western Hemisphere regions
  • How first humans adapted to and modified their environment
  • Patterns of settlement in the regions, past and present
  • Adaptations of people to the physical geography and climate
  • Resources and use of resources in the regions, past and present
  • Locations of explorations in the Western Hemisphere
  • How the geography of the regions affected transportation, communication, and interaction among the people of the regions
  • Drawing maps of patterns of settlement, movement, physical features, products, trade relationships, explorations, plants and animals, etc. in the Western Hemisphere


  • First humans in Western Hemisphere
  • Migration routes and movement of people
  • Early societies in the hemisphere
  • European exploration and its effects
  • Interactions of Europeans with Native Americans
  • Colonization and comparison of colonies
  • Transatlantic trade
  • Slave trade from Africa (reasons, transport, conditions, effects)
  • Close examination and comparison of the development of specific civilizations
  • Political development and maps of countries in the Western Hemisphere
  • Issues faced by specific countries and regions in the Western Hemisphere


Additional Information