First Grade


Mathematical content and curriculum are supported and enhanced by mathematical processes that are common to all strands and specific expectations.

1. Make sense of problems and persevere in the solving process
2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively
3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others
4. Model with mathematics
5. Use appropriate tools strategically
6. Attend to precision
7. Look for and make use of structure
8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning


Number and Operations

  • Count beyond 100
  • Start with any number less than 120 and count forward
  • Write a numeral to name numbers to 1,000
  • Understand place value to 99
  • Use properties of addition and subtraction (commutative, associative, identity, inverse operations)
  • Use place value and properties to add and subtract within 100
  • Skip count by twos, fives, and tens
  • Mentally add or subtract 10 from any two-digit number
  • Add and subtract multiples of 10

Mathematical Operations and Algebraic Thinking

  • Show or write problems involving addition and subtraction
  • Solve problems (including word problems) involving addition and subtraction
  • Add and subtract within 20
  • Create and work with addition and subtraction equations
  • Find missing numbers in equations

Geometry and Spatial Relationships

  • Compare and describe attributes of shapes
  • Distinguish between different attributes of shapes
  • Build and draw shapes with specific attributes (such as three sides)
  • Draw or create and name two-dimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, circles, triangles, and half circles)
  • Draw or create and name three-dimensional shapes (cubes, cones, and rectangular prisms)
  • Compose two-dimensional shapes from other shapes
  • Divide circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, using the words half and quarter

Measurement and Data

  • Measure and express length by repeated same-length units
  • Put three or more objects in order by length
  • Tell and write time in hours and half hours
  • Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories on tables and simple graphs
  • Compare number of points or items in different categories

Social Science

There are ten themes of social studies that serve as a background framework for the teaching of the social sciences at all grade levels. They weave through all content and are interrelated with one another. These themes should be developed and built upon throughout the grades.

Ten Themes of Social Studies

1. Culture
2. Time, continuity, and change
3. People, places, and environments
4. Individual development and identity
5. Individuals, groups, and institutions
6. Power, authority, and governance
7. Production, distribution, and consumption
8. Science, technology, and society
9. Global connections
10. Civic ideals and practices

There are social studies practices and habits and literacy skills that should be fostered and integrated with all social studies content.

1. Gathering, interpreting, and using evidence from various sources
2. Applying critical thinking skills to organize, use, and evaluate information
3. Problem solving and decision making processes
4. Chronological reasoning and understanding of causation
5. Comparing and understanding events and relationships in context
6. Comparing different ways of looking at an event or problem
7. Considering how people might be affected by events, changes, settings, or problems
8. Communicating knowledge, research conclusions, and ideas in written, oral, and visual forms
9. Geographic reasoning and use of geographic tools
10. Describing and explaining economics and economic systems
11. Civic understanding and participation


  • Describe ways families meet basic human needs
  • Identify examples of goods and services
  • Understand that people make and use goods and services
  • Identify ways that people exchange goods and services
  • Distinguish between wants and needs
  • Explain sources of income and why people work
  • Discuss the idea of scarcity of goods, time, or money and the choices this requires
  • Give examples of ways physical geography affects how people earn money
  • Discuss the value and limitation of natural resources
  • Identify roles and responsibilities of authority figures in the home, school, and community
  • Describe some roles of public officials in the community, state (or province or territory), and nation
  • Discuss the concept of saving
  • Describe how technology affects communication, transportation, and the way people work


  • Understand origins of holidays, customs, and celebrations of community, state (or province or territory), and nation
  • Distinguish among past, present, and future
  • Identify contributions of key historical figures in community, state (or province or territory), and nation
  • Describe and present some stories from own family history
  • Create and analyze calendars and simple timelines
  • Describe events in terms of calendar time
  • Compare lives of people in communities past and present
  • Compare past and present technologies
  • Use terms related to sequential order of events
  • Find examples of historical fact and fiction in folktale and legends
  • Put some recent events in chronological order
  • Ask and answer historical questions about events in own life or community

Family, Community, and Culture

  • Discuss the importance of families and communities
  • Know that families pass on knowledge, language, values, customs, and traditions
  • Identify some customs, beliefs or values, and traditions
  • Understand the importance of respect and honor within families and communities
  • Identify some ways language, customs, values, and traditions vary in different families and communities
  • Recognize ways families celebrate important events in different ways
  • Describe how technology changes the way families live
  • Discuss, give examples of, and appreciate cultural diversity


  • Describe some ways that people interact with their environments
  • Identify important locations in the community
  • Locate places using the four cardinal directions (north, south, east, west)
  • Locate self, objects, and places relative to other locations
  • Describe physical characteristics of places (landforms, bodies of water, natural resources, etc.)
  • Discuss ways that human characteristics of a place (shelter, clothing, food, activities, etc.) are connected to geographic location
  • Identify examples of and uses for natural resources in the community and state
  • Create and use simple maps of house, classroom, school, and community
  •  Locate community, state (or province or territory), and country on a map or globe
  • Identify important local, state (or provincial or territorial), or national natural and human-made features


  • Explain the purpose for rules and laws in the home, school, community
  • Identify rules and laws that establish order, provide safely, and manage conflict
  • Identify some of the civic values of own family, school, and country
  • Identify and practice behaviors of a good citizen in school, family, and community
  • Identify and explain state (or provincial or territorial) and national patriotic symbols, anthems, and mottos
  • Recite the Pledge of Allegiance
  • Identify some of the leaders in own community, state and country
  • Identify some roles and responsibilities of authority figures
  • Explain and practice voting as a way of making choices and decisions
  • Participate in group decisions and problem solving

Language Arts

Foundational Skills

  • Know sounds for two letters that represent one sound
  • Read regularly spelled one-syllable words (words that follow general spelling rules)
  • Know that a final e teams up with a common vowel to make long vowel sounds
  • Identify number and separation of syllables
  • Break words into syllables to help with reading
  • Read words with inflectional endings
  • Recognize and read many grade-appropriate words with regular and irregular spellings
  • Create new words with two- or three-letter initial sounds
  • Use phonics and word analysis skills to read unknown words

Writing and Representing

  • Write short pieces that present an opinion, supply reasons, and give a conclusion
  • Write short informative or explanatory pieces that name a topic, give relevant facts, and include a conclusion
  • Write stories (true or fictitious) that include details, put events in order, and provide a conclusion
  • With adult guidance, make improvements and needed changes to written work
  • With adult help, use tools, including digital tools, to produce and publish writing
  • Take part in shared research and writing projects, gathering information for a specific purpose
  • Create written and visual works to summarize and share information gained during research

Reading Literature and Informational Text

  • Know and use various text features (table of contents, index, glossary, headings)
  • Explain major differences between texts that tell stories and those that give information
  • Retell stories, relating central ideas and key details
  • Describe main ideas, arguments, or points in informational text
  • Ask and answer questions about key details in a story or other text
  • Describe characters, settings, and events in a story
  • Describe connections between ideas, events, information, or people in a text
  • Connect information to past knowledge about the topic
  • Make predictions about what will happen next in a story
  • Identify who is telling a story at various points in the story
  • Ask and answer questions to learn or clarify meaning of words and phrases used in the text
  • Identify words and phrases in stories or poems that appeal to senses
  • Describe how illustrations connect to a story or informational text
  • Identify author’s purpose and discuss ways the text accomplishes the purpose
  • Compare and contrast adventures, experiences, settings, characters, within a story or in different stories
  • Identify similarities and differences between two texts on the same topic
  • Use texts to find information and answer questions following a step-by-step inquiry process
  • Take part in shared research and writing projects, gathering information for a specific purpose
  • Demonstrate the ability to discuss, clarify, summarize, and evaluate information gained during research
  • Read grade-level texts with accuracy, fluency, and sufficient understanding


  • Determine or clarify meanings of unknown words and phrases and multiple-meaning words from grade-level content
  • Use clues within the sentence to decide the meaning of a word or phrase
  • Use knowledge of prefixes, suffixes, and roots to decode words
  • Create new words from base words
  • With help, show understanding of figurative language
  • Sort words into categories
  • Identify real-life connections between words and their use
  • Distinguish shades of meaning among words with similar meanings
  • Choose the right word for a particular context
  • Use words and phrases gained through reading, conversing, listening,
  • Show understanding of features of sentences and paragraphs
  • Identify, understand, and use compound words

Speaking and Listening

  • Express ideas and feelings clearly
  • Speak in complete sentences when appropriate
  • Participate in conversations with diverse partners and groups
  • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions
  • Listen to others with focus and care
  • Build on others’ ideas in conversation; respond to comments
  • Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details
  • Give and follow simple two-step directions
  • Ask questions during reading and instruction for clarification and to gain more information
  • Ask and answer questions to clarify oral presentations to which the student is listening
  • Add drawings or other visual approaches to speaking to clarify ideas, feelings, and thoughts

English Language Skills

  • Write all upper and lowercase letters
  • Use and identify common, proper, and possessive nouns
  • Use correct singular and plural nouns to match verbs
  • Use pronouns correctly (I, me, you, my, they, them, there, anyone)
  • Use verbs to communicate past, present, and future
  • Correctly use frequently occurring adjectives and adverbs
  • Correctly use frequently occurring prepositions
  • Produce simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences
  • Write complete simple sentences
  • Capitalize names and dates
  • Use correct end punctuation for sentences
  • Use commas in dates and series
  • Use correct spelling for grade-level words
  • Spell new words phonetically


The Next Generation Science and Engineering Standards describe scientific practices that scientists use as they investigate the natural world and engineering practices that engineers use as they design and build models and systems. In addition, they present seven crosscutting concepts that apply across all the topics and fields of science. The teaching of science topics and the corresponding standards at all grade levels K-12 are intricately interwoven with these practices and crosscutting concepts. Students need consistent experience and connection with these two dimensions of science education (practices and cross-cutting concepts) as they work with the third dimension (core science content topics).

Science and Engineering Practices

1. Asking questions (science) and defining problems (engineering)
2. Developing and using models
3. Designing and carrying out investigations
4. Organizing and interpreting data
5. Using mathematics and computational thinking
6. Constructing explanations (science) and designing solutions (engineering)
7. Engaging in argument from evidence
8. Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

Crosscutting Concepts

1. Patterns
2. Cause and effect
3. Scale, proportion, and quantity
4. Systems and system models
5. Energy and matter: Flows, cycles, and conservation
6. Structure and function
7. Stability and change

Physical Science

  • Identify states of matter (solids, liquids, and gasses)
  • Identify properties of objects (size, texture, shape, color, floatability, solubility, etc.)
  • Predict and identify changes in materials caused by heating and cooling
  • Observe ways that substances mix with a liquid; define mixture
  • Observe and describe objects that float or sink
  • Understand that sound can make matter vibrate and vibrating matter can make sound
  • Identify and discuss different forms of energy, such as light, heat, and sound
  • Recognize that objects can be seen when light illuminates them
  • Explore materials that allow light to pass through them, others that allow some light through, and others that block all light
  • Explore the ways that mirrors reflect light beams and images
  • Name some devices that people use to communicate over long distances

Life Science

  • Identify different external animal parts and their functions
  • Identify different plant parts and the ways they help the plants
  • Describe the concept of offspring of plants and animals
  • Discuss animal features and traits that help growth and survival
  • Understand the idea that animals and plants inherit traits from their parents
  • Understand that traits vary; identify examples of varying traits

Earth and Space Science

  • Observe, describe, and predict patterns of motion of the sun, moon, and stars
  • Describe the 24-hour day-night cycle
  • Observe, describe, and predict seasonal patterns of sunrise and sunset

Additional Information