Fourth Grade


Mathematical content and curriculum are supported and enhanced by mathematical processes that are common to all strands and specific expectations.

1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them
2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively
3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of other
4. Model with mathematics
5. Use appropriate tools strategically
6. Attend to precision
7. Look for and make use of structure
8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning

Algebraic Thinking and Operations with Whole Numbers

  • Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems with whole numbers
  • Become familiar with factors and multiples within 100
  • Generate and analyze mathematical patterns

Number and Operations

  • Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers
  • Understand that the digit in one place is 10 times what it would be in the place to the right
  • Read and write multi-digit numerals
  • Write numbers in expanded form to show place value of each digit (Example: 26,825 = 20,000 + 6,000 + 800 + 20 + 5)
  • Round multi-digit numerals to any place
  • Compare the values of numbers using the symbols <, > , and =
  • Use understanding of place value and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic problems

Geometry and Spatial Relationships

  • Draw, identify, and define points, lines, line segments, rays, and angles
  • Draw, recognize, and define parallel and nonparallel lines
  • Classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles
  • Identify different kinds of triangles; recognize right triangles
  • Recognize and define lines of symmetry

Fractions and Operations

  • Compare and order numbers with different numerators and denominators
  • Build fractions from unit fractions
  • Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator
  • Add and subtract mixed fractional numbers with like denominators
  • Multiply fractions by whole numbers
  • Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions
  • Create visual models to represent and solve problems with fractions
  • Express a fraction with denominator of 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator of 100
  • Use decimal notation for fractions with denominators 10 or 100
  • Compare decimals to one hundredth

Measurement and Data

  • Know relative sizes of units in metric and English systems
  • Convert units to larger and smaller units
  • Solve word problems with time, distance, masses of objects, money, and temperature
  • Use formulas to find area and perimeter of rectangles
  • Solve real-world problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit
  • Represent and interpret data
  • Make a line plot to show data in fractions of units
  • Understand that a circle has 360 degrees
  • Use a protractor to measure and draw angles in whole-number degrees
  • Understand and show angle measure as additive

Social Science – Studies of Own State

There are ten themes of social studies that serve as a background framework for the teaching of the social sciences at all grade levels. They weave through all content and are interrelated with one another. These themes should be developed and built upon throughout the grades.

Ten Themes of Social Studies

1. Culture
2. Time, continuity, and change
3. People, places, and environments
4. Individual development and identity
5. Individuals, groups, and institutions
6. Power, authority, and governance
7. Production, distribution, and consumption
8. Science, technology, and society
9. Global connections
10. Civic ideals and practices

There are social studies practices and habits and literacy skills that should be fostered and integrated with all social studies content.

Gathering, interpreting, and using evidence from various sources
2. Applying critical thinking skills to organize, use, and evaluate information
3. Problem solving and decision making processes
4. Chronological reasoning and understanding of causation
5. Comparing and understanding events and relationships in context
6. Comparing different ways of looking at an event or problem
7. Considering how people might be affected by events, changes, settings, or problems
8. Communicating knowledge, research conclusions, and ideas in written, oral, and visual forms
9. Geographic reasoning and use of geographic tools
10. Describing and explaining economics and economic systems
11. Civic understanding and participation


  • Comparative locations and features of Michigan in relation to the United States and world
  • Location of one’s home in relation to other cities and features in Michigan
  • Michigan’s location using latitude and longitude grid
  • Michigan’s borders and neighbors
  • Physical features, vegetation, and climate
  • Major cities and other human-made or cultural features
  • Studying and comparing a variety of maps of Michigan
  • Creating maps of physical features of Michigan and key cities
  • Michigan’s natural resources
  • Patterns of past and present settlements and population distribution
  • Geographic factors influencing settlement and population
  • Ways the land has provided for and continues to provide for needs
  • Locations of key events in Michigan’s history
  • Relationship between humans and the environment in Michigan

Citizenship and Government

  • Rights and responsibilities of citizens in Michigan
  • Michigan’s patriotic symbols, traditions, and celebrations
  • Key officials and offices in Michigan and local area
  • Key elements of Michigan constitution
  • Structure of Michigan’s  government
  • Responsibilities of Michigan’s governments
  • Michigan and regional issues

Community and Culture

  • Cultural groups that make up Michigan
  • Immigration in the Michigan and cultural diffusion
  • Contributions of different cultural groups in Michigan
  • Key cultural and social changes in Michigan


  • Economic activities and changes over time in Michigan
  • Businesses and industries in Michigan
  • Michigan resources, physical and human
  • Relationships between geography and Michigan’s economy
  • Creating maps of products or resources
  • Trade, exports, and imports
  • Economic issues in Michigan
  • Economic choices in Michigan


  • Early settlements
  • Path to status of Michigan and establishment of government
  • Structure and key concepts of Michigan’s constitution
  • Peoples and groups who settled Michigan
  • Key events, developments, and decisions in Michigan’s history
  • Key people in Michigan’s history
  • Key issues in Michigan’s history
  • Effects of nationwide or regional events on Michigan —American Revolution, westward movement, nation-wide or regional conflicts, industrialization, slavery, environmental decisions, national security, the war on terror, etc.
  • Ways technology changes affected Michigan’s development, communication, and transportation


Language Arts

Foundational Skills

  • Apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in reading unfamiliar words
  • Read grade-level texts with purpose and understanding
  • Orally read grade-level texts with accuracy, expression, and appropriate rate
  • Confirm and self-correct words during oral reading

English Language Skills

  • Identify parts of speech and their functions in specific sentences
  • Use relative pronouns, progressive verb tenses, and prepositional phrases
  • Form and use possessive nouns
  • Produce complete sentences; correct incomplete or run-on sentences
  • Correctly use words that are frequently confused
  • Use conventions of English when writing (capitalization, punctuation, and spelling)
  • Punctuate dialogue correctly
  • Spell grade-level words correctly
  • Consult reference materials to check spellings
  • Correctly use the English language when speaking, reading, or writing
  • Know the difference between formal and informal English and when to use each

Reading Literature and Informational Text

  • Identify main topic, idea, or argument in grade-level text
  • Show understanding of key details in a text
  • Identify text evidence to support the author’s message or reader’s responses
  • Retell stories, including tales from diverse cultures
  • Describe main message, lesson, or moral from stories or other texts
  • Describe characters in a story and how their actions contribute to the plot
  • Determine meanings of words or phrases as used in a text
  • Describe effects and uses of words and phrases in passages
  • Describe overall structure of a passage and its effect on the message
  • Describe how parts of a story, poem, or drama build on other parts
  • Use features in the text and Internet search tools to locate relevant information
  • Explain connections between a series of events, ideas, concepts, or steps in a text
  • Explain differences between an author’s point of view and their own
  • Explain how visual images and graphics contribute to and clarify a text
  • Combine information from two texts on the same topic
  • By the end of the academic year, read and understand grade-level literary and informational texts at grade level independently and with proficiency

Speaking and Listening

  • Express ideas and feelings clearly
  • Speak clearly and audibly in sensible sentences
  • Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details
  • Give and follow directions
  • Participate in conversations with diverse partners and groups
  • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions
  • Listen and respond to others with focus and care
  • Ask and answer questions about key details heard in an oral or visual presentation
  • Present a report or tell a story with appropriate facts, relevant details
  • Add visual components to a speech to clarify ideas, feelings, and thoughts
  • Create audio recordings of stories or poems


  • Use context clues to determine word and phrase meanings
  • Use word structure clues to determine word meanings
  • Use synonyms and antonyms to clarify and explain word meanings
  • Use dictionaries and glossaries (print and digital) to determine or clarify word meaning
  • Understand and use figurative language (similes, metaphors, idioms, adages, proverbs, etc.)
  • Distinguish literal and nonliteral meanings of words in context
  • Distinguish shades of meaning among related words
  • Learn and use grade-level general academic vocabulary


  • Write opinion, informative, or explanatory pieces that state a topic or purpose, supplying relevant facts and reasons, and presenting a conclusion
  • Write stories that include details, put events in order, and provide a conclusion
  • Make improvements and needed changes to written work
  • Use transitional words and phrases to connect ideas
  • Add dialogue and descriptions to develop characters and events
  • Use tools, including digital tools, to produce and publish writing
  • Take part in shared research and writing projects
  • Gather information from various sources to answer a question
  • Create written and visual works to summarize and share information
  • Conduct short research tasks on a topic through investigation
  • Gather information from print and digital sources and take notes
  • Write regularly for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences



    The Next Generation Science and Engineering Standards describe scientific practices that scientists use as they investigate the natural world and engineering practices that engineers use as they design and build models and systems. In addition, they present seven crosscutting concepts that apply across all the topics and fields of science. The teaching of science topics and the corresponding standards at all grade levels K-12 are intricately interwoven with these practices and crosscutting concepts. Students need consistent experience and connection with these two dimensions of science education (practices and cross-cutting concepts) as they work with the third dimension (core science content topics).

    Science and Engineering Practices

    1. Asking questions (science) and defining problems (engineering)
    2. Developing and using models
    3. Designing and carrying out investigations
    4. Organizing and interpreting data
    5. Using mathematics and computational thinking
    6. Constructing explanations (science) and designing solutions (engineering)
    7. Engaging in argument from evidence
    8. Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

    Crosscutting Concepts

    1. Patterns
    2. Cause and effect
    3. Scale, proportion, and quantity
    4. Systems and system models
    5. Energy and matter: Flows, cycles, and conservation
    6. Structure and function
    7. Stability and change

    Life Science

  • Plant manufacture of food
  • Populations of organisms
  • Food chains and food webs
  • Plant and animal structures that support growth, reproduction, and behavior
  • Plant and animal relationships in an ecosystem
  • Plant and animal adaptation and survival
  • Human interaction with the environment
  • Animal structures specialized to take in and process information

Earth and Space Science

  • Earth history
  • Earth changes through plate tectonics (earthquake and volcano activity)
  • Rock evidence of Earth changes due to forces
  • Locations of earthquake and volcano activity
  • Earth changes through physical and chemical weathering
  • Natural resources and their importance and uses
  • How living things affect the physical characteristics of their region
  • Hazards that result from natural processes or extreme natural events

Physical Science

  • Definitions of energy
  • Movement and transfer of energy
  • Law of Conservation of Energy
  • Conductors and insulators
  • Relationship between energy and forces
  • Energy in chemical processes
  • Electrical circuits
  • Energy and fuels from natural resources
  • Magnets and magnetic forces
  • Electricity and magnetism; electromagnetic radiation
  • Safe use of electricity
  • Wave properties and motions
  • Transfer of digitized information
  • Properties of water
  • Changes in state of matter (evaporation, melting, condensation, freezing)
  • Water cycle
  • Floating and sinking

Additional Information