Third Grade


Mathematical content and curriculum are supported and enhanced by mathematical processes that are common to all strands and specific expectations.

1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them
2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively
3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of other
4. Model with mathematics
5. Use appropriate tools strategically
6. Attend to precision
7. Look for and make use of structure
8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning

Measurement and Data

  • Tell and write time to nearest minute
  • Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of time
  • Measure and estimate liquid volumes and masses of objects
  • Solve word problems involving four operations with masses or volumes
  • Generate measurement data, measuring lengths to halves and fourths of an inch
  • Understand how concepts of area relate to multiplication and to addition
  • Recognize and measure perimeter
  • Measure areas by counting unit squares
  • Multiply side lengths to find areas of rectangles in real-world problems
  • Recognize area as additive
  • Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving perimeters of polygons
  • Use tiles and pictures to represent areas
  • Understand that data are sets of individual numerical facts or measurements
  • Interpret information and solve problems from data on graphs and tables
  • Draw a picture graph or scaled bar graph to represent a set of data

Algebraic Thinking and Operations with Whole Numbers

  • Understand products as total number of objects in a number of same-size groups
  • Understand quotients as the number of objects in each share when a total is equally partitioned
  • Understand division as a problem of finding an unknown factor
  • Know from memory all products of two one-digit numbers
  • Apply commutative, associative, and distributive properties to multiply and divide
  • Multiply and divide fluently within 100
  • Find unknown numbers in multiplication or division problems within 100
  • Use drawings and equations with a symbol to represent an unknown number
  • Solve two-step word problems involving the four operations
  • Identify arithmetic patterns (5 times a number always ends in 5 or 0)
  • Assess the reasonableness of answers (using estimation and mental calculation)

Fractions and Operations

  • Understand a fraction as a quantity formed when a whole is partitioned into equal parts
  • Understand that a unit fraction (1/b) is the quantity formed by one part when the whole is partitioned into b equal parts
  • Represent fractions on a number line diagram
  • Compare fractions by reasoning about their size
  • Explain the concept of fraction equivalence
  • Recognize and generate simple equivalent fractions
  • Create models to show equivalent fractions

Geometry and Spatial Relationships

  • Identify and describe a variety of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional shapes
  • Understand that shapes in different categories may share attributes
  • Understand that rectangles, rhombuses, squares, and trapezoids are all quadrilaterals
  • Categorize shapes by their attributes
  • Partition shapes into equal areas, describing each part as a unit fraction of the whole (for a shape partitioned into 6 parts with equal area, each part is 1/6 of the whole)

Numbers and Operations

  • Understand and use place value to 1,000
  • Round numbers to the nearest 10 or 100
  • Add and subtract within 1,000 using place value understandings
  • Multiply one-digit whole numbers by multiples of 10

Social Science –  World Communities

There are ten themes of social studies that serve as a background framework for the teaching of the social sciences at all grade levels. They weave through all content and are interrelated with one another. These themes should be developed and built upon throughout the grades.

Ten Themes of Social Studies

1. Culture
2. Time, continuity, and change
3. People, places, and environments
4. Individual development and identity
5. Individuals, groups, and institutions
6. Power, authority, and governance
7. Production, distribution, and consumption
8. Science, technology, and society
9. Global connections
10. Civic ideals and practices

There are social studies practices and habits and literacy skills that should be fostered and integrated with all social studies content.

1. Gathering, interpreting, and using evidence from various sources
2. Applying critical thinking skills to organize, use, and evaluate information
3. Problem solving and decision making processes
4. Chronological reasoning and understanding of causation
5. Comparing and understanding events and relationships in context
6. Comparing different ways of looking at an event or problem
7. Considering how people might be affected by events, changes, settings, or problems
8. Communicating knowledge, research conclusions, and ideas in written, oral, and visual forms
9. Geographic reasoning and use of geographic tools
10. Describing and explaining economics and economic systems
11. Civic understanding and participation


  • Uniqueness of the history of each community or culture
  • Ways cultural history is passed from one generation to the next (legends, oral histories, folktales, etc.)
  • Key events in history of selected world communities
  • Key places and people in history of selected world communities
  • Timelines of historical features of selected world communities
  • Technological developments in transportation and communication in selected world communities
  • Development of trade in selected world communities


  • Available resources, human and natural, for the selected world community
  • How the selected community uses resources to meet basic needs and wants
  • Concepts of surplus and scarcity in relation to the selected community
  • Ways of meeting basic needs of food, clothing, and shelter in the selected community
  • Ways people earn a living now and in the past in the selected community
  • Goods and services produced in each selected community
  • Goods products or services exported and imported in the selected community
  • The role of trade in the selected community

Community and Culture

  • Comparison of family and school activities in own community with those of selected world communities
  • Comparison of cultural traditions in own community with those of selected world communities
  • Components of culture and diversity of communities (language, customs, traditions, beliefs, practices, celebrations)
  • Cultural features, traditions, and symbols of selected world communities
  • Arts, music, dance, and literature of selected world communities
  • Concept of cultural diffusion and how it happens
  • Comparison of effects of cultural communities in selected world communities on people, ideas, practices, and products


  • Earth’s equator, hemispheres, continents, and oceans
  • Earth’s regions
  • Earth’s grid system (lines of latitude and longitude)
  • Understanding of map features and use, including scale
  • Comparing locations of selected world communities to one’s own country
  • Use of a variety of maps to locate and examine selected world communities
  • Political and physical features of selected communities
  • Ways physical and climate features influence people in selected communities
  • Use of maps to identify one’s own location and relative locations
  • Location of one’s own local land, regions, river systems, and highways
  • Physical and human features of state and neighboring states
  • How geographical features affect population patterns
  • Human adaptations to the geography of the specified world community
  • Construction of maps, tables, graphs, charts


  • Concept of democracy and principles of democratic government
  • Type of government in the selected community; comparison to other governments
  • How leaders are chosen in the selected world community
  • How problems are solved in the selected world community
  • Ways the government keeps people safe, maintains order, provides for needs
  • Role of citizens in the selected community

Language Arts

Reading Literature and Informational Text

  • Identify main topic, idea, lesson, moral, or argument in grade-level text
  • Show understanding of key details in a text
  • Identify text evidence to support the author’s message or reader’s responses
  • Retell stories, including tales from diverse cultures
  • Describe characters in a story and how characters’ actions contribute to the plot
  • Determine meanings of words or phrases as used in a text
  • Describe effects and uses of words and phrases in passages
  • Describe overall structure of a passage and its effect on the message
  • Describe how parts of a story, poem, or drama build on other parts
  • Use text features and search tools to locate relevant information
  • Explain connections between events, ideas, concepts, or steps in a text
  • Explain differences in points of view of characters, narrators, or writers
  • Explain differences between an author’s point of view and their own
  • Explain how visual images and graphics contribute to and clarify a text
  • Compare and contrast themes, settings, plots, or ideas in two texts on the same topic or by the same author
  • By the end of the academic year, read and understand grade-level literary and informational texts at grade level independently and with proficiency

Speaking and Listening

  • Express ideas and feelings clearly
  • Speak clearly and audibly in sensible sentences
  • Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details
  • Add visual components to a speech to clarify ideas, feelings, and thoughts
  • Give and follow simple two-step directions
  • Participate in conversations with diverse partners and groups
  • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions
  • Listen and respond to others with focus and care
  • Ask and answer questions about key details in a text or in an oral presentation
  • Present a report or tell a story with appropriate facts and relevant details
  • Create audio recordings of stories or poems

Foundational Skills

  • Apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in reading words
  • Know meanings of most common prefixes and suffixes
  • Decode irregularly spelled grade-level words and multi-syllable words
  • Read grade-level texts with purpose and understanding
  • Orally read grade-level texts with accuracy, expression, and appropriate rate
  • Confirm and self-correct words during oral reading


  • Use context clues to determine word and phrase meanings
  • Use word structure clues to determine word meanings
  • Use synonyms and antonyms to clarify and explain word meanings
  • Use dictionaries and glossaries (print and digital) to determine or clarify word meaning
  • Understand and use figurative language (similes, metaphors, idioms, adages, proverbs, etc.)
  • Distinguish literal and nonliteral meanings of words in context
  • Distinguish shades of meanings among related words
  • Learn and use grade-level general academic vocabulary

English Language Skills

  • Identify nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs and their functions Ÿ in specific sentences
  • Form and use regular and irregular nouns and verbs and verb tenses
  • Form and use conjunctions, superlative adjectives, and superlative adverbs
  • Produce complete simple, compound, and complex sentences
  • Capitalize proper nouns and appropriate words in titles
  • Use end punctuation, commas, and apostrophes
  • Punctuate dialogue correctly
  • Use grade-level spelling patterns and rules
  • Consult reference materials to check spellings
  • Correctly use the English language when speaking, reading, or writing
  • Know when to use formal and informal English


  • Write opinion, informative, or explanatory pieces that state a topic or purpose, supply relevant facts and reasons, and present a conclusion
  • Write stories that include details, put events in order, and provide a conclusion
  • Make improvements and needed changes to written work
  • Use transitional words and phrases to connect ideas
  • Add dialogue and descriptions to develop characters and events
  • Take part in shared research and writing projects
  • Conduct short research task on a topic or question
  • Gather information from print and digital sources and take notes
  • Create written and visual works to summarize and share information
  • Use tools, including digital tools, to produce and publish writing
  • Write regularly for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences


The Next Generation Science and Engineering Standards describe scientific practices that scientists use as they investigate the natural world and engineering practices that engineers use as they design and build models and systems. In addition, they present seven crosscutting concepts that apply across all the topics and fields of science. The teaching of science topics and the corresponding standards at all grade levels K-12 are intricately interwoven with these practices and crosscutting concepts. Students need consistent experience and connection with these two dimensions of science education (practices and cross-cutting concepts) as they work with the third dimension (core science content topics).

Science and Engineering Practices

1. Asking questions (science) and defining problems (engineering)
2. Developing and using models
3. Designing and carrying out investigations
4. Organizing and interpreting data
5. Using mathematics and computational thinking
6. Constructing explanations (science) and designing solutions (engineering)
7. Engaging in argument from evidence
8. Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

Crosscutting Concepts

1. Patterns
2. Cause and effect
3. Scale, proportion, and quantity
4. Systems and system models
5. Energy and matter: Flows, cycles, and conservation
6. Structure and function
7. Stability and change

Life Science

  • Life cycles of plants and animals
  • Plant and animal adaptation and survival
  • Plant and animal behaviors
  • Learned and inherited traits of living things
  • Variations of inherited traits
  • Relationships between traits of organisms and their survival
  • Influence of environment on plant and animal traits
  • Relationships in an ecosystem
  • Effects of environmental changes on organisms in the environment
  • Animal behavior and social interactions
  • Evidence of extinct plant and animals
  • Biodiversity

Earth and Space Science

  • Weather and climate patterns and predictions
  • Climate variations
  • Natural hazards resulting from natural processes

Physical Science

  • Physical properties of matter (size, shape, weight, volume, flexibility, luster, color, texture, hardness, odor, etc.)
  • Forms of energy (heat, sound, chemical, mechanical, and electrical)
  • Heat release and transfer
  • Energy transformations (such as heat to light)
  • Interactions of matter and energy
  • Sound (pitch, vibrations, volume) and how sound travels
  • Sizes and kinds of forces, including gravity
  • Relationships between force and motion
  • Effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on an object
  • Patterns and measurements of an object’s motion
  • Electric or magnetic interactions between objects not in contact with each other
  • Simple machines

Additional Information